By Dr. Walter Mächtle, Dr. Lars Börger (auth.)
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a robust process for the characterization of polymers, biopolymers, polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, dispersions, and different colloidal platforms. the strategy is ready to be sure the molar mass, the particle measurement, the particle density and interplay parameters like virial coefficients and organization constants. simply because AUC is usually a fractionation procedure, the selection of the molar mass distribution, the particle measurement distribution, and the particle density distribution is feasible. a different method, the density gradient procedure, permits fractionating heterogeneous samples based on their chemical nature that implies with the ability to realize chemical heterogeneity. The ebook is split into chapters referring to instrumentation, sedimentation pace runs, density gradient runs, software examples and destiny advancements. particularly, the exact program bankruptcy demonstrates the flexibility and gear of AUC via many fascinating and demanding business examples. hence the e-book concentrates on sensible points instead of info of centrifugation concept.
Both authors have decades of expertise in an commercial AUC examine laboratory of a global best chemical company.
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Additional resources for Analytical Ultracentrifugation of Polymers and Nanoparticles
5). 50cm. 20cm. The reference cell is used to perform the radial calibration at given centrifugal speed. The remaining holes carry up to seven different measurement cells, which in turn can contain up to eight different samples each if multi-channel cells are used. For safety reasons, it is important to know the allowed maximum speed for the different types of rotors. The most frequently used, commercially available analytical rotors have maximum speeds of 50 000 and 60 000rpm. The lifetime of rotors depends on the time period they have been rotated at maximum speed.
The driving axle is ﬂexible in such a way that the angle between the rotor axis and motor axis (which is ﬁxed to the vacuum chamber and laboratory ﬂoor) can change with rotor velocity. ), and very safe. 2 User-Made Centrifuges Considering that Beckman-Coulter is a more biochemically oriented company, and because most applications of AUC originate from biochemical questions, the design of their last analytical ultracentrifuges, the Optima XL-A/I, is driven by the corresponding requirements. As mentioned above, this book mainly concentrates on the application of the AUC in the research on synthetic polymers and colloids.
The pulse-times of the ﬂash lamp to ensure illumination of the desired superimposed cells are calculated from these data. 6 Auxiliary Measurements As mentioned in preceding sections, a few auxiliary parameters have to be known to interpret sedimentation velocity data (and equilibrium run data, too; see Sect. 2). These are the density of the solvent ρs , the viscosity of the solvent ηs , and the particle density ρp or its reciprocal, the partial speciﬁc volume of the solute υ = 1/ρp . Furthermore, for detection of the solute/particle concentration c in sedimentation experiments by Schlieren, turbidity, UV absorption or interference optics, the following optical parameters are required: refractive indices of the solvent and the solute/particle, ns and np , respectively, the speciﬁc refractive index increment of the solute (dn/dc)p or the speciﬁc decadic absorption coefﬁcient ε according to Lambert–Beer’s law.