Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds by L. Mázor

By L. Mázor

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6. The radiation source is usually a 100-200 m C tritium coating. The tritium detector can be used only u p to 220°C; above 6 3 this temperature, up to about 350°C, detectors use a N i source. 1 to 2 kV is applied. ) is required, the sensitivity of detection can be improved by coupling flame ionization and electron capture detectors in a two-channel arrangement. G a s chromatography and halogen-specific gas chromatographic detec- 65 METHODS FOR THE DETECTION tors are widely applied. G a s chromatographic detectors are treated in detail (40) in a recent m o n o g r a p h .

Electron-withdrawing groups enhance the reactivity of halogen atoms, while electron-repelling ones decrease it. The influence of para electron-withdrawing groups suitable for participation in mesomerism can be explained by the capability of these groups to join in the resonance with the electron system of the ring. Mesomerism causes the carbon a t o m carrying the halogen to be electron deficient, just at the site accessible for nucleophilic attack. T h u s the reactivity of the halogen atom is increased by, for example, the nitro group in the para position, while m- or ö-nitro groups are ineffective.

The influence of para electron-withdrawing groups suitable for participation in mesomerism can be explained by the capability of these groups to join in the resonance with the electron system of the ring. Mesomerism causes the carbon a t o m carrying the halogen to be electron deficient, just at the site accessible for nucleophilic attack. T h u s the reactivity of the halogen atom is increased by, for example, the nitro group in the para position, while m- or ö-nitro groups are ineffective. The atoms of the polar group can take part in the ring mesomeric system only when they are coplanar with the ring.

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