By Curtis A. Williams, Merrill W. Chase
Tools in Immunology and Immunochemistry, quantity IV: Agglutination, supplement, Neutralization, and Inhibition offers info pertinent to direct and oblique agglutination reactions. This booklet covers various issues, together with complement-fixation systems, isolation of supplement parts, hemolytic intermediates, complement-related proteins, and neutralization reactions.
Organized into 3 chapters, this quantity starts off with an summary of test-tube agglutinations which are most well-liked for blood grouping with saline agglutinins that require various mins for agglutination. this article then describes blood staff antibodies that agglutinate crimson blood cells suspended in saline. different chapters think about the classical pathway of supplement usage. This e-book discusses to boot the complexity of occasions resulting in hemolysis of erythrocytes by means of supplement. the ultimate bankruptcy offers with the facility of antitoxin to neutralize diphtheria toxin and explains the quantitative relationships among antigen and antibody.
This e-book is a important source for immunologists, scientists, and learn employees.
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Additional info for Agglutination, Complement, Neutralization, and Inhibition
Acad. Sei. 234, 1-412 (1974). 6] M a n y plants, such as the castor bean. Ricinus communis^ yield extracts t h a t agglutinate blood of all blood groups, and are thus called nonspe cific for human erythrocytes. M a n y more plants contain no detectable hemagglutinins in their seeds. Some other species contain substances which agglutinate human erythrocytes with demonstrable selectivity (Table I I ) . Some seeds, perhaps most, contain proteins that combine firmly but nonspecifically with erythrocytes of any blood group, without agglutinating them or producing any visible change in their behavior.
Levine, F . Ottensooser, M . J . Celano, and W. Pollitzer, Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 13, 29 (1955). " W. C. Boyd, E . Shapleigh, and M. McMaster, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 66, 226 (1955). " S. Matsubara and W. C. Boyd, / . Immunol. 96, 25 (1966). « H. M. Bhatia, W. C. Boyd, and R. Brown, Transfusion 7, 53 (1967). b Ό 5 25 HEMAGGLUTINATION 10 15 20 25 30 35 4 0 4 5 50 Micrograms α substance added F I G . 1. " The open circles show nitrogen precipitated from the lectin by hog A substance. For comparison, a precipitation curve given b y mixing human anti-A serum and hog A substance is shown in filled circles.
McMaster, J. Immunol. 81, 414 (1958). * W. C. Boyd, D . M . Green, D . M . Fujinaga, J . S. Drabik, and E . WaszczenkoZacharczenko, Vox Sang. 4, 456 (1959). a] be carried out a t + 4 ° overnight with a weight of saline equal to 5 to 1 0 times the weight of the ground seed. V a n Loghem*^ recommends for Vicia graminea 8 0 parts of saline, added in three portions, the super n a t a n t suspension being poured off each time before fresh saline is added. Lectin preparations keep well in the frozen state.