By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a original and hugely revered booklet, offers present advancements in addition to accomplished experiences in immunology. Articles handle the big variety of subject matters that contain immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and medical modalities. Edited and authored via the key scientists within the box, every one quantity offers up to date info and instructions for destiny study.
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Additional info for Advances in Immunology, Vol. 97
2006). Moreover, links established between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton are likely crucial in endocytic processes occurring during IS formation. Unfortunately, the putative actin regulators controlling MTOC polarization are largely unknown. , 2007) (Fig. 3). Actinnucleating FMNL1 and mDIA1 co-localized near the centrosome and controlled MTOC polarity and cell-mediated killing, whereas TCRmediated MTOC repositioning was unexpectedly ARP2/3-independent. Moreover, FMNL1 and mDIA1 display strikingly different patterns of MTOC co-localization and loss of either FMNL1 or mDIA1 individually affects MTOC reorientation, suggesting that they are not functionally redundant in this regard.
In addition to F-actin reorganization, the MTOC and vimentin (intermediate filaments) also rapidly relocate to the base of the uropod, with microtubules radiating into the uropod, perhaps increasing T cell deformability during chemotaxis. Mitochondria may regulate myosin activity for contraction within the uropod, whereas clathrin-mediated endocytosis occurring in the uropod could control receptor recycling during migration. Lastly, adhesion molecules are localized to the uropod via ERM-dependent anchoring to the cortical actin cytoskeleton and might allow responding T cells to recruit bystander lymphocytes to sites of inflammation or periodically anchor the cell to the substratum during locomotion.
TCR ligation leads to a transient deacetylation of microtubules and then enhanced microtubule acetylation at the IS, which is important for microtubule stability. , lytic granules and cytokines) travels along microtubules using minus-end-directed movement to the centrosome, which directs secretion toward the APC surface through specialized domains within the IS. 30 Timothy S. Gomez and Daniel D. , 2001). , 2006). Moreover, links established between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton are likely crucial in endocytic processes occurring during IS formation.