By Patrick Martinez
High-performance charged-couple gadget (CCD) cameras have spread out an exhilarating new window at the Universe for newbie astronomers. This ebook presents an entire, self-contained consultant to picking and utilizing CCD cameras. starting with a no-nonsense advent to CCD cameras, the authors clarify what determines digital camera functionality and reveal find out how to use a CCD digital camera and effectively calibrate the photographs received. The ebook additionally offers a transparent assessment of the software program on hand for visualizing, studying and processing electronic photos. ultimately, the authors navigate a chain of key parts in astronomy the place astronomers could make the easiest use of CCD cameras. this useful quantity is filled with useful information. It offers a transparent advent to CCD astronomy for newbies and an integral reference for more matured beginner astronomers.
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to CCD Astronomy (Practical Astronomy Handbooks)
At 20 °C, the thermal charges generated during the array's read time (about 2 seconds) are not negligible and further we can see from the gradient on the image that the last pixels read are more affected than the first ones. Notice the horizontal register located at the bottom of the image. CCD image in the dark (the shutter stays closed) with identical thermal and exposure time conditions. This second image contains only thermal electrons; it is sufficient, then, to remove it from the first one so that it only contains photon-electrons.
This solution's major inconvenience is its lack of flexibility: it is impossible to modify a cabled circuit to vary its operation; the production of functions such as windowing or binning are a puzzle for circuit designers. • Software logic: this signifies that the desired functions are produced by a sotfware integrated into a computer; the clocks are program variables transformed into electronic signals by an input-output electronic card interface. In this case, the program must be adapted when the computer is changed, but the required modifications are easily done, as are the windowing and binning functions.
Digital: each pixel's charge is read and digitized separately and then the computer takes care of adding the values it received. The second solution is easy to produce and does not need a program modification of the clocks. Then again, the first solution works better, but needs a special function mode for the clocks: several consecutive line transfers must be done before the horizontal register is read, as well as several pixel transfers within the horizontal register with specific cycles before the accumulated charges are read.