A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder by J. R. Partington

By J. R. Partington

For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the losing of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical compounds outlined the frightful volume of conflict. The gear and fabrics utilized in global warfare i might were commonplace to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington presents a world survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek fireplace, and gunpowder.Greek fireplace, a composition Partington believes used to be made up of a distilled petroleum fraction and different materials (but no longer saltpetre), was once so much famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in historical warfare—to eu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin e-book of fireplace, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the historical past of infernal machines, mines, canon, small palms, and artillery. His ebook comprises chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including hearth books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He lines the improvement of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st identified point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The heritage of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the overall historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of international locations. The historian of technology is worried in general with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of expertise examines the advance within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how within which gunpowder has came across functions within the peaceable arts. the army historian offers frequently with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the advance of firearms and their use in battle. No fresh publication in English (or for that subject in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface

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Deux Mondes. Revue des Deux Mondes, Paris. Rev. Scientif. Revue Scientifique, Paris. -techn. Vortrdge. Sammlung chemischer und chemischtechnischer Vortrage, Stuttgart. Scribonius Largus, De compos, med. Scribonius Largus, De Compositione Medicamentorum. Seneca, Quest. Nat, Seneca, Quaestionum Naturalium. Sitzungsber. ) konigl. bayer. Akad. -philol. Classe. Sitzungsberichte der Koniglichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophischphilologische Classe, Munich. XXXIV LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Sitzungsber.

Noteworthy that Theophanes says the "fire-ships" were fitted with "siphons" in 671, and presumably the invention of Kallinikos made these more effective. If he had brought it with him, it must presumably have been known to the Arabs in Syria, which does not appear to have been the case. Constantinople was full of inventors and craftsmen. ^^" These mechanical toys continued the tradition represented in the treatise of Heron of Alexandria {c. D. 121 We may be sure that when KaUinikos arrived as a displaced person he found in Constantinople many native rivals.

Vol. 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, pt. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Partington, J. R. 1960. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons. Paszthory, Emmerich. 1986. Uber das 'Griechische Feuer': Die Analyse eines spatantiken Waffensystem. Antike Welt 17, no. 2: 27-36. Quatremere, E. M. 1850. Observation sur le feu gregois. fournal asiatique4^ ser. 15: 214-74. Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint and Ildefonce Fave. 1849. Du feu gregois, des feux de guerre, et les origines del la poudre a canon chez les Arabes, les Persans, et les Chinois.

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